MySQL Server has gone away报错分析

在平时和开发的交流以及在论坛回答问题的或称中会发现这个问题被问及的频率非常高。 程序中报错: MySQL server has gone away 是什么意思? 如何避免? 因此,感觉有必要总结一下发生这个问题的原因。
 

一、MySQL 服务宕了​


判断是否属于这个原因的方法很简单,执行以下命令,查看mysql的运行时长
$ mysql -uroot -p -e "show global status like 'uptime';"
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| Uptime | 68928 |
+---------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.04 sec)
或者查看MySQL的报错日志,看看有没有重启的信息
$ tail /var/log/mysql/error.log
130101 22:22:30 InnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 256.0M
130101 22:22:30 InnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer pool
130101 22:22:30 InnoDB: highest supported file format is Barracuda.
130101 22:22:30 InnoDB: 1.1.8 started; log sequence number 63444325509
130101 22:22:30 [Note] Server hostname (bind-address): '127.0.0.1'; port: 3306
130101 22:22:30 [Note] - '127.0.0.1' resolves to '127.0.0.1';
130101 22:22:30 [Note] Server socket created on IP: '127.0.0.1'.
130101 22:22:30 [Note] Event Scheduler: Loaded 0 events
130101 22:22:30 [Note] /usr/sbin/mysqld: ready for connections.
Version: '5.5.28-cll' socket: '/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock' port: 3306 MySQL Community Server (GPL)
如果uptime数值很大,表明mysql服务运行了很久了。说明最近服务没有重启过。 如果日志没有相关信息,也说明mysql服务最近没有重启过,可以继续检查下面几项内容。
 

二、连接超时


如果程序使用的是长连接,则这种情况的可能性会比较大。 即,某个长连接很久没有新的请求发起,达到了server端的timeout,被server强行关闭。 此后再通过这个connection发起查询的时候,就会报错server has gone away
$ mysql -uroot -p -e "show global variables like '%timeout';"
+----------------------------+----------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+----------------------------+----------+
| connect_timeout | 30 |
| delayed_insert_timeout | 300 |
| innodb_lock_wait_timeout | 50 |
| innodb_rollback_on_timeout | OFF |
| interactive_timeout | 28800 |
| lock_wait_timeout | 31536000 |
| net_read_timeout | 30 |
| net_write_timeout | 60 |
| slave_net_timeout | 3600 |
| wait_timeout | 28800 |
+----------------------------+----------+
mysql> SET SESSION wait_timeout=5;


# Wait 10 seconds

mysql> SELECT NOW();
ERROR 2006 (HY000): MySQL server has gone away
No connection. Trying to reconnect...
Connection id: 132361
Current database: *** NONE ***

+---------------------+
| NOW() |
+---------------------+
| 2013-01-02 11:31:15 |
+---------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

三、进程在server端被主动kill


这种情况和情况2相似,只是发起者是DBA或者其他job。发现有长时间的慢查询执行kill xxx导致。
$ mysql -uroot -p -e "show global status like 'com_kill'"
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| Com_kill | 0 |
+---------------+-------+

四、Your SQL statement was too large.


当查询的结果集超过 max_allowed_packet 也会出现这样的报错。定位方法是打出相关报错的语句。 用select * into outfile 的方式导出到文件,查看文件大小是否超过max_allowed_packet ,如果超过则需要调整参数,或者优化语句。
mysql> show global variables like 'max_allowed_packet';
+--------------------+---------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+--------------------+---------+
| max_allowed_packet | 1048576 |
+--------------------+---------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

# 修改参数:

mysql> set global max_allowed_packet=1024*1024*16;
mysql> show global variables like 'max_allowed_packet';
+--------------------+----------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+--------------------+----------+
| max_allowed_packet | 16777216 |
+--------------------+----------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
英文原文:http://ronaldbradford.com/blog/sqlstatehy000-general-error-2006-mysql-server-has-gone-away-2013-01-02/

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